Dimensão socio-política da Educação Matemática

(última actualização: 12 Março 2007)

Artigos

Critical Mathematics Education for the Future

Ole Skovsmose

Resumo

Mathematics education can mean disempowerment or empowerment. It does not contain any strong ‘spine’, but could collapse into rigid forms and support problematic features of any social development. However, mathematics education can also contribute to the creation of a critical citizenship and support democratic ideals. The socio-political roles of mathematics are neither fixed nor determined. In this sense I talk about mathematics education as being critical.
I see critical mathematics education as a preoccupation with challenges emerging from the critical nature of mathematics education. Critical mathematics education refers to concerns which have to do with both research and practice, and a concern for equity and social justice being one of them. Here I want to refer to the following challenges: (1) How do processes of globalisation and ghettoising frame mathematics education? (2) What does it mean to go beyond the assumptions of Modernity? (3) How should ‘mathematics in action’, including a mixing of power and mathematics, be interpreted? (4) What forms of suppression can be exercised through mathematics education? (5) How could mathematics education provide empowerment?
Such questions reflect an uncertainty with respect to the possible socio-political functions of mathematics education. Facing this uncertainty, this aporia, is a characteristic of critical mathematics education. This cannot be based on any political or epistemological foundation. Our situation is similar to those who need to construct a ship while swimming around in the open sea.

 

Matemática, educação e desenvolvimento social – questionando mitos que sustentam opções actuais em desenvolvimento curricular em matemática

João Filipe Matos

Resumo
O conhecimento matemático não existe fora dos modos como é usado, fora dos interesses para os quais é usado e das razões pelas quais é usado. Do mesmo modo, a educação matemática que é proporcionada aos alunos não existe fora dos modos, interesses e razões que lhe estão subjacentes. Nesta comunicação discuto uma perspectiva sobre a educação matemática em que esta é encarada como fenómeno emergente começando por focar o que são na minha perspectiva as finalidades da matemática escolar e, através de exemplos, distinguindo o “ensinar matemática” da ideia de “educar matematicamente”. Através da identificação e discussão de alguns mitos que actualmente são vividos na matemática escolar – o mito da neutralidade da matemática, o mito da competência matemática, o mito da ressonância intrínseca da formação matemática, o mito da referência e da participação na resolução de problemas, o mito da investigação matemática na sala de aula – procuro tirar implicações para o desenvolvimento curricular em matemática em Portugal.
Abstract
Mathematical knowledge does not exist outside the ways it is used, the aims of its use and the reasons why it is used. In parallel, mathematics education does not exist out of the reasons behind it. In this address I discuss a perspective on mathematics education that stresses the notion of emergent phenomenon. I start focusing the aims of mathematics education in school and, through example, I stress the difference between “teaching mathematics” and “educate mathematically”. While I identify and discuss a few myths that are lived in school mathematics nowadays (the myth of the neutrality of mathematics, the myth of mathematical competence, the myth of intrinsic resonance in mathematical development, the myth of reference and participation in problem solving, the myth of mathematical investigation in the class – and I try to put forward some implications for the development of curricula in Portugal.

 

Quebrando a neutralidade política: o compromisso crítico entre a educação matemática e a democracia

Ole Skovsmose – Universidade de Aalborg, Dinamarca

Paola Valero – Universidade Nacional de Educação, Dinamarca

(este artigo foi publicado originalmente em Atweh, B., Forgasz, H. & Nebres, B. (Eds) (2001). Sociocultural Research in Mathematics Education. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Tradução de João Miguel Matos).

Resumo

Este artigo apresenta alguma literatura em educação matemática, dedicada à relação entre a educação matemática e a democracia. Apresentamos três teses sobre esta relação: a tese da ressonância intrínseca, a tese da dissonância e a tese da relação crítica. Cada tese expressa postulados particulares sobre a matemática, a educação matemática e a sua ligação com a democracia.  A democracia e a educação matemática são debatidas como conceitos e actividades abertas. Isto permite acentuar potenciais cenários de desenvolvimento democrático que podem ser abordados no estudo da relação entre a democracia e a educação matemática.

 

Ethnomathematics and the challenges of racism in mathematics education
Arthur Powell - Rutgers University, USA

Resumo

In this plenary address, I will focus on issues and critiques of ethnomathematics and its challenges to racism in mathematics education. Ethnomathematics, a nascent but burgeoning field of inquiry and action, has since the 1970s provided hopes for significant, worldwide challenges to the professional practice, historiography, and pedagogy of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics and mathematics education have turned to ethnomathematics as a space of new scholarship and of action against oppressive educational structures that continually disempower particularly subaltern learners of ethnic and racial minorities within nations and subaltern nations within global regions. To discuss this perspective of ethnomathematics, I will explore questions such as these four: Have the hopes of ethnomathematics been realized? Does ethnomathematics have political origins and orientation that suggest an educational praxis? Can ethnomathematics provide a praxis that helps mathematics education activists? Under the current imperial project euphemistically called globalization, how might ethnomathematics effectively challenge structural features of educational systems that continue to threaten racial minorities and plummet nations into economic dependency?

 

The myth of the active learner: From cognitive to socio-political interpretations of students in
mathematics classrooms

Paola Valero - The Danish University of Education, Denmark

Resumo

Most mathematics education research is based on the assumption of the centrality of learners in the processes of mathematical learning. This assumption views learners as active cognitive subjects at the “centre” of the development of mathematical thinking in classrooms. This idea has constituted in mathematics education research literature what I call the myth of the active learner. Based on my research on mathematics education school change from a socio-political perspective, I examine this myth, discuss it and provide alternative ways of interpreting the need for placing students’ activity in the centre of mathematics teaching and learning.

 

“Um outro mundo é possível”, também no campo educativo

Gelsa Knijnik - Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Brasil

Resumo

As imagens das torres gêmeas de Mannhatan ruindo frente aos olhos do mundo e os bombardeios incessantes ao Afeganistão ainda ecoam dolorosamente, quando inicio a escrita deste texto. Não por acaso, tais imagens e sons agora se re-apresentam a mim. Há controvérsias sobre o quanto, depois de Setembro e Outubro de 2001, seremos ainda os mesmos... Mas, parece, estamos todos de acordo que aquele foi um momento da história que nos impôsprofundas reflexões sobre os destinos que nós mesmos estamos dando ao mundo em que vivemos. Reflexões marcadas pelas dimensões éticas, sociais e políticas de nossas vidas. Reflexões que incluem um repensar o papel da ciência e da tecnologia nestes tempos de tão rápidas e profundas mudanças. No que diz respeito a nós, intelectuais que atuamos no campo da Educação Matemática, também estamos nos perguntando sobre nossa responsabilidade na construção de um mundo no qual não haja lugar para terrorismos de Estados e de grupos fanáticos, para a intolerância, a discriminação e a insidiosa opressão econômica de alguns sobre muitos.

 

Educação matemática e cidadania

João Filipe Matos, Centro de Investigação em Educação, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

(Editorial do número temático da revista Quadrante dedicado ao tema)

 

 

Citizenship and Numeracy: Implications for Youth, Employment and Life Beyond the School Yard

Robyn Zevenbergen - Griffith University, Australia

Resumo

One of the bigger tasks confronting contemporary schools is how best to prepare students for their future lives beyond schools. Within such a context, considerations need to be made as to what constitutes the demands of that society and what skills and knowledges are needed in order to work within that society. By no means is this a simple equation since to work within a society also demands skills and knowledges that not only allow young people to live within it, but also to ensure critique in order that notions of equity and fairness prevail. Educators and policy makers continually struggle and debate over what are the necessary elements of a good education. Changes over time reflect the dialectic of schools and society. Emphases and ideology are reflected in the terminology used to denote current trends and movements in schools and the wider social arena.

 

O Dilema da Relevância da Matemática  na Investigação em Educação Matemática

João Filipe Matos, Universidade de Lisboa e CIEFCUL, Portugal

Paola Valero, Royal Danish School of Educational Studies, Dinamarca

Madalena Santos, bolseira do ME e CIEFCUL, Portugal

Elsa Fernandes, Universidade da Madeira, Portugal

 

Resumo

Porquê falar em dilemas? Porque isso nos ajuda a identificar questões alternativas e isso pode concorrer para organizar as ideias.

Porquê o dilema da relevância da matemática? Porque é dado como adquirido que a matemática é algo básico, fundamental e essencial. Pôr isso em causa obriga a perceber as lógicas que estão por detrás desse tipo de convicções.

Porquê a necessidade de considerar as dimensões política, social e cultural na prática da investigação em educação matemática? Porque a educação matemática e a investigação em educação matemática não existem num vazio, num mundo virtual, asséptico ou virgem. Ignorar esses aspectos actualmente significa não assumir a responsabilidade que o sistema coloca nos professores, educadores e investigadores em educação matemática. Os aspectos socioculturais e políticos são elementos constitutivos da educação matemática. Perceber a educação matemática nesta perspectiva evidencia o dilema da relevância em educação matemática.

 

Educação (,) Matemática e Sociedade

João Filipe Matos - Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

Resumo 

Não restam dúvidas de que a construção de uma cidadania informada e detentora de sentido crítico é hoje um dos objectivos fundamentais da educação. Esta ideia tem sido sistematicamente repisada pelos políticos. Mas paradoxalmente (ou talvez não) são os mesmos políticos que definem (com o apoio dos professores depois das amplas discussões realizadas nas escolas) orientações curriculares e formas de avaliação que apelam muito mais ao regorgitar e à aplicação mecânica de alguns saberes práticos do que à demonstração de capacidades de reflexão, de análise, de crítica. Este artigo aflora o papel da Matemática no desenvolvimento da cidadania em Portugal no quadro actual da educação matemática.

 

How do we research the social dimension in mathematics education - as sociologists and as socialists?

Peter Gates - University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

Resumo

Much of the history of research in mathematics education has been located in – or at least derived from – individualistic and individualising paradigms such as psychology. Given the growing awareness of the importance of the social dimension we need to look more closely at the implications this has, not only for our research questions, but also for the very constructs we adopt. In this paper I adopt a sociological – and, I consider, a socialist – perspective on where we might look for constructs in order to undertake research that had wider implications for our discipline.

 

Teaching mathematics and social justice: multidimensionality and responsibility

Karin Brodie, Emily Shahan, Jo Boaler

Resumo

This paper draws from a larger longitudinal study that follows approximately 1000 students over four years in three schools in California, USA. The study focuses on interactions among curriculum, teaching and learning, and tries to understand how particular teaching
approaches influence learning. Our assessment, questionnaire and interview results show that at one school, which we call Railside, students achieved better results than students at the other two schools. This positive result is particularly interesting given the fact that Railside is an urban school, serving predominantly low SES students. The students at Railside also developed more productive dispositions towards mathematics and towards each other. They persisted more when faced with challenging problems and reported greater enjoyment of math class. Moreover, students developed the idea that mathematics is about communicating, explaining and justifying ideas, they viewed collaboration with others as central to mathematical work, and they held themselves accountable for helping each other to learn. The Railside teachers explicitly teach an approach to learning mathematics that includes responsibility to others. (...)

 

 

Some tensions in mathematics education for democracy

Iben Maj Christiansen

Resumo

In this paper, I discuss some links between mathematics education and democracy, what these links could imply to what and how we teach, and the issues that arise from trying to further these links. I first suggest three links between mathematics education and
democracy formulated on the basis of experiences in Denmark, in particular: learning to relate to authorities’ use of mathematics, learning to act in a democracy, and developing a democratic classroom culture. The first two are discussed in relation to narratives from real
life, with a focus on the tensions which they reveal. From the discussion following the first narrative, it is clear that what is a competency in one context may not be so in another. This is supported by the second narrative which also questions what is most relevant to
students in South Africa and thereby gives rise to the formulation of a fourth connection between democracy and mathematics education, related to issues of access.The third narrative informs a discussion of what it means to be critical. It also continues to address
the potential tension between wanting to promote students’ critical skills and a democratic classroom culture versus wanting to support students in learning what others have developed and what is required in order to succeed in the schooling system. Finally,
democracy is linked to the idea of ‘mündigkeit’, or ‘personal authority’. This is not only an issue in relation to the students, but also in relation to teachers. On this basis, I briefly touch on teachers’ possibilities for making choices concerning what and how to teach. This
comprises a fifth connection between democracy and mathematics education.

 

Connecting community, critical and classical knowledge in teaching mathematics foir socila justice

Eric Gutstein

Resumo

In this article, I describe conceptually, and give an example of, an aspect of teaching mathematics for social justice—teachers’ attempts to connect three forms of knowledge: community, critical, and classical. The setting is a Chicago public high school, oriented
toward social justice, whose students are all low-income African Americans and Latinas/os. Drawing from the experience of creating and teaching a mathematics project that emerged from a central disruption in the life of the school community, I discuss complexities and
challenges of creating curriculum from students’ lived experiences that simultaneously develops their critical sociopolitical consciousness and mathematical proficiencies.